Ph.D.    University of Minnesota, political science

L.L.M.   University of London (with honors), European Union Law, Criminal Justice

J.D.      University of Minnesota Law School (With Honors, Dean's list), Associate Articles Editor, Minnesota Law Review

M.A.    State University of New York at Binghamton, philosophy

M.A.   Rutgers University, political science

M. Astronomy James Cook University (history of astronomy)

B.A.    Harpur College, (All-College Honors, High Honors in political science), political science and philosophy

Cornell University, non-matriculated graduate courses